DEA 1 Expression on Dog Erythrocytes Analyzed by Immunochromatographic and Flow Cytometric Techniques.


Acierno MM, Raj K, Giger U

Objectives: To assess if variation in DEA 1 positivity is because of quantitative differences in surface antigen expression. To determine expression patterns in dogs over time and effects of blood storage (4°C). To evaluate DEA 1.2+ samples by DEA 1 typing methods.

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Comparison of 4 Direct Coombs’ Test Methods with Polyclonal Antiglobulins in Anemic and Nonanemic Dogs for In-Clinic or Laboratory Use


L.L. Caviezel, K. Raj, and U. Giger

Objective: To compare different DATs and other hematologic parameters in dogs.

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Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing


Mayank Seth, BVetMed; Karen V. Jackson, BVSc; Sarah Winzelberg, VMD; Urs Giger, PD, Dr med vet, MS

Objective: To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immuno- chromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing.

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Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system


Mayank Seth, BVetMed, Karen V. Jackson, BVSc, and Urs Giger, Dr med vet, MS


Section of Medical Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

Objective: To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays.

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Anemia in Feline Critical Illness


Douglass K. Macintire, DVM, MS, DACVIM, DACVECC


Auburn University, Auburn, AL



Anemia is common in critically ill cats. The origin may be either acute or chronic. The diagnostic workup for cats with acute anemia should include the following: evaluation of blood smear, slide agglutination test, complete blood count, new methylene blue stain for Heinz bodies, Coomb's test, blood typing, FeLV/FIV testing, chemistry panel, coagulation testing (if evidence of bleeding) and PCR for hemotropic mycoplasmas.

Are You My Type And What to Do When Incompatible?


Urs Giger, PD Dr. med. vet. Dipl. ACVIM & ECVIM-CA, Dipl. ECVCP


Transfusion Center and Penn Animal Blood Bank, Section of Medical Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania,


Philadelphia, PA 19104

Since the early 80s the use of blood products in treating critically ill animals and supporting animals undergoing surgical and other procedures has tremendously increased. However, it should be noted that blood products are prepared from donor animals and represent a very limited resource not available in all situations, and as they are biologicals they bear the inherent risks to transmit infectious agents and cause other adverse transfusion reactions. Furthermore, the need for blood typing and crossmatching of patients and donors has now been recognized in order to assure safe and more efficacious transfusions in dogs and cats. Veterinary clinicians play a key role in providing safe and effective transfusion therapy.

Feline Anemias-Therapeutic Options and Transfusion Therapy


Urs Giger, Diplomate, ACVIM & ECVIM


University of Pennsylvania


Philadelphia, PA, USA

The identification of the various causes of feline anemia is a diagnostic challenge and has been reviewed in the previous chapter on Feline Anemia-a Diagnostic Challenge. Some of the therapeutic options for various specific diseases were also mentioned there and will be discussed here. However, this presentation will center on the supportive care with blood products.

Neonatal Immunity


Michael J. Day



School of Clinical Veterinary Science


University of Bristol, Langford, United Kingdom

This presentation reviews aspects of the development and maturation of the canine and feline immune system in the in utero and neonatal period and the immunological disorders that are of importance during early life.

Panel On Transfusion Medecine Practice


Urs Giger (Moderator), Philadelphia, PA; Beth Davidow, Seattle, WA; Anne S. Hale, Stockbridge, MI, Justine Lee, Urbana, IL; and others

Transfusion therapy refers to the safe and effective replacement of blood or one of its components offering support for many critically ill, anemic and bleeding patients. Thereby, blood transfusions have become pivotal in any emergency and critical care setting which led to the large increase of blood product usage over the past two decades. The Transfusion Medicine Academic Awards, given by the NIH to 5 veterinary schools around 1990, have spurred research and greater emphasis on comparative transfusion medicine. Many novel blood banking techniques have recently been developed for use in companion animals. The recent advances have greatly improved the availability, quality and safety of blood products for dogs and cats. However, with the recent increased use of blood products concerns have arisen about their detrimental effects on severely ill and immunocompromised patients.

Peculiarities About Feline Transfusion Medicine


Urs Giger, PD Dr. med. vet. Dipl. ACVIM & ECVIM-CA, Dipl. ECVCP


Transfusion Center and Penn Animal Blood Bank, Section of Medical Genetics


School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

Transfusion support is also critical for the feline patient, most commonly to correct anemia and less often bleeding. Nevertheless, blood transfusions are overall still less frequently administered to cats than dogs for a variety of reasons. Compared to canine transfusion medicine, cats can tolerate anemia better, they still get somewhat less medical attention, except for rodenticide toxicity and hepatopathies they bleed less severely, recruiting healthy donors is more difficult (occult heart disease, viral infections), blood collection requires sedation and special small bag collection systems, component therapy is less commonly practiced in clinics, cats have important naturally occurring alloantibodies and may experience life-threatening complications with a first transfusion, and the anemic cat is more sensitive to volume overload. During this session several peculiarities about feline transfusion medicine will be presented emphasizing the practical aspects of feline blood typing and crossmatching, donor selection and screening for infectious diseases, special blood collection techniques and component therapy.

Platelet-Rich Plasma: It's More Than You Think!


Elizabeth Rozanski, DVM, DACVECC, DACVIM (SA-IM)


Tufts University, North Grafton, MA

The platelet has recently undergone an expansion of interest, as understanding of their role in hemostasis, inflammation and healing is being further elucidated. Platelets are clearly important in primary hemostasis and a lack of platelets or platelet dysfunction is commonly clinically significant. The focus of this talk is two-fold- The first is to discuss the preparation and uses of platelet-rich plasma for management of thrombocytopenia or thrombocytopathia, while the second is to discuss the emerging role of platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich gels, and platelet concentrates in supporting wound healing.

Scientific proceedings


Sophie Adamantos, BVSc CertVA DipACVECC MRCVS, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal


Veterinary College, UK,

The red blood cell membrane is covered proteins and complex carbohydrates and hence is antigenic. Patients recognise these foreign antigens as non-self when they receive a transfusion and stimulate antibody production.

Therapeutic Considerations For The Bleeding Dog


Urs Giger, PD Dr. med. vet. Dipl. ACVIM & ECVIM-CA, Dipl. ECVCP


Transfusion Center and Penn Animal Blood Bank, Section of Medical Genetics


School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

In the emergency room and intensive care unit hemorrhage is a very common clinical problem in dogs. Depending on the (internal or external) site, acuteness, and degree of bleeding, dogs may have overt signs of hemorrhage, show specific organ failure (e.g. thoracic hemorrhage, hemoabdomen), and/or signs related to the systemic effects of hypovolemia, anemia and/or hypoproteinemia. Differentiating between normal and abnormal hemostasis by clinical and laboratory assessment is crucial; dogs with a bleeding tendency often exhibit recurrent and/or multiple sites of hemorrhage. Similarly, differentiating between primary (thrombocytopenia, -pathias, von Willebrand's disease, vasculopathies) and secondary (hereditary and acquired coagulopathies) hemostatic defects is important to choose the correct therapy. Clinical features and practical laboratory tests to assess bleeding patients is the topic of another presentation by the same author (Identifying Coagulopathies in the ER). It should be noted that many of those tests can be used in an emergency setting and are also used to monitor the response to treatment and course of the underlying disease.

Transfusion Medicine


D. Hughes


Royal Veterinary College, London, UK.

Since the first blood transfusion was carried out on a dog at Oxford University in 1666, the science of transfusion medicine has advanced a great deal. To perform transfusion medicine successfully, there must be an understanding not only of when and how to administer whole blood and its products but also of safe ways of obtaining and potentially storing these blood products. It is vital that blood used for transfusion is collected, processed, stored and used in a way that minimises the chance of any harm occurring to either the recipient or donor.

Update on Neonatal Isoerythrolysis (Last Updated: 8-Dec-2001)


C. Snook


New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, USA.

Neonatal isoerythrolysis, an immunologic disorder causing red blood cell destruction, seen in newborn horse and mule foals and other species, infrequently occurs in the equine population. It is preventable with an understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, allowing the veterinarian and foal manager to modify breeding and management practices in order to decrease clinical significance of the disease. Clinical signs present in affected foals are due to anemia and are dependent upon the severity of that anemia.

Creation of a Community Based Blood Bank


B.F. Feldman* and C.A. Sink**


*Dept of Biomedical Sciences & Pathobiology, VA-MD - Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA (Deceased).


**Laboratory Diagnostic Services, VA-MD - Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

The main goal of this book is to provide an easily readable and accessible reference text which we hope will be readily found on the laboratory bench and will be constantly open and used.

In : Practical Transfusion Medicine, Feldman B.F. and Sink C.A. (Eds.).

Publisher: Teton NewMedia, Jackson, WY, USA (

Internet Publisher: International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY (

DEA 1 Expression on Dog Erythrocytes Analyzed by Immunochromatographic and Flow Cytometric Techniques


M.M. Acierno, K. Raj, and U. Giger


J Vet Intern Med 2014;28:592–598

Pre- and Post-Transfusion Alloimmunization in Dogs Characterized by 2 Antiglobulin-Enhanced Cross-match Tests


I. Goy-Thollot , U. Giger, C. Boisvineau, R. Perrin, M. Guidetti, B. Chaprier, A. Barthelemy, C. Pouzot-Nevoret, and B. Canard


Standard Article / J Vet Intern Med 2017

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